Computer Networking

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What is a client program? What is server program? How p2p works? (5) Answer: A networking program usually has clients programs and servers programs, each running on a different host and communicating with each other. The program that initiates the communication is the client. Typically, the client program sends service requests to server and server program provide service to client. Informally, clients tend to be desktop and mobile PCs, Smartphone, and so on, whereas servers tend to be more powerful machines that store and distribute Web pages, stream video, relay e-mail, and so on. Today, most of the servers from which we receive search results, e-mail, Web pages, and videos reside in large data centers. For example, Google has 30–50 data centers, with many having more than one hundred thousand servers. In a P2P network, the "peers" are computer systems which are connected to each other via the Internet. Files can be shared directly between systems on the network without the need of a central server. In other words, each computer on a P2P network becomes a file server as well as a client. P2P allows us to search for files on other people's computers. Meanwhile, other users on the network can search for files on my computer, but typically only within a single folder that we have designated to share Suppose you are developing for new type of packet switched network. You need to decide whether you work your network will use VCs or datagram routing. What are the pros and cons for using VCs? (5) Answer: In my network I will use VCs.

The cons of VCs include
The need to have a signaling protocol to set-up and tear-down the VCs; The need to maintain connection state in the packet switches For the pros,
Some researchers and engineers argue that it is easier to provide QoS services - such as services that guarantee a minimum transmission rate or services that guarantee maximum end-to-end packet delay – when VCs are used. What are the five layers in the...
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